The Agricultural Census 2010
The data on agricultural holdings presented in the Geostatistics Portal was collected in the Agricultural Census 2010 (PSR 2010) which was conducted from September 1st to October 31st 2010 as at June 30th 2010 (unless specified otherwise).
All data contained in the Portal can be presented in the form of choropleth maps and diagram maps, using relative values (indicators) specifying e.g. the percentage of holdings with a given phenomenon in the total number of agricultural holdings, and absolute values, such as the number of agricultural holdings, area of crops, livestock. The data presented in the form of indicators can be obtained at the lowest possible level, namely at the gmina (LAU2) level. Due to the necessity of maintaining statistical confidentiality (Article 38.2 of the Act of 29 June 1995 on Official Statistics, Dz. U. (Journal of Laws) 1995 No. 88, item 439) data in absolute values is presented at the lowest possible level that secures compliance with this principle. Therefore some of the information in absolute values can be obtained for the gmina (LAU2) level while other for the powiat (LAU1), sub-region (NUTS3), voivodship (NUTS2) or even region (NUTS1) level.
All data can be presented by the seat of the holder or by the seat of the holding.
Data is presented by the following thematic groups:
- economic activity,
- income structure,
- use of equipment,
- sown area,
- land use,
- farm animals,
- economic activity.
The thematic group "Income" contains data on agricultural holdings that in a period of 12 months preceding the census generated income from:
- agricultural activities,
- non-agricultural activities,
- paid employment,
- retirement pays and pensions,
- other non-paid sources apart from retirement pays and pension.
Using relative values, information showing the share of holdings generating certain income in the number of total holdings can be obtained.
The thematic group "Economic activity" contains data on agricultural holdings:
- conducting only agricultural activities,
- conducting within the 12 months preceding the census activities other than agricultural activities directly related to the agricultural holding,
- with a specified percentage share of income from the sales of goods and services from economic activities other than agricultural activities, directly related to the agricultural holding in the total sales of the holding's production,
- with a specified percentage share of direct sales in the total sales of agricultural production (within 12 months preceding the census),
- with a specified percentage of the final production for household needs (within 12 months preceding the census),
- in which the transfer of the holding to the successor is planned until 2013.
Using relative values, information on the share of holdings conducting only agricultural activities, conducting activities other than agricultural activities, with a specified share of income, with a specified share of direct sales or with a specified consumption of final production for household needs in the total number of holdings can be obtained.
The thematic group "Income structure" contains data on agricultural holdings:
- broken down according to the share of direct sales to consumers in the total sales of the agricultural holding,
- with income from agricultural activities broken down according to the percentage of consumption of the final value of agricultural production.
Using relative values, information on the share of holdings with an appropriate percentage share of direct sales to consumers or holdings with a different percentage of consumption of the final value of agricultural production in the total number of holdings can be obtained.
The thematic group "Use of equipment" contains data on agricultural holdings conducting agricultural activities:
- according to the number of possessed tractors,
- according to the amount of possessed machinery and equipment used for agricultural production.
Using relative values, information on the share of holdings with tractors in the number of total holdings and selected machines or equipment for agricultural production per appropriate area of crops or livestock density can be obtained.
The thematic group "Sown area" contains information on agricultural holdings with particular crops and on the area of particular crops.
Using relative values, information on the percentage of holdings with a particular crop in holdings with sowings and the percentage of the sown area of a particular crop in the total sown area can be obtained.
The thematic group "Land use" contains information on agricultural holdings with particular agricultural land and on the area of particular crops.
Using relative values, information on the percentage of holdings with a particular agricultural land in the number of total holdings and the percentage of the area of particular agricultural land in the total area of the agricultural holding can be obtained.
The thematic group "Farm animals" contains information on agricultural holdings with particular species of farm animals and on the number of animals broken down by particular species of farm animals.
Using relative values, information on the percentage of holdings with a given age group for particular species of farm animals in the number of holdings with a given species, and the proportion of the number of animals in a given age group to the total number of animals of a given species can be obtained.
The thematic group "Economic activity" contains information on the labour input over the year (namely within 12 months preceding the survey) on agricultural production in agricultural holdings conducting activities, broken down by categories of workers and by combining work in an individual holding with other activities (exclusive, main, and additional work) by the holder's family members. Using relative values, information showing the labour input per 100 ha of agricultural land or the average labour input on an agricultural holding can be obtained.
Basic definitions applicable to PSR 2010:
The headquarters of the holder who is a natural person is the place of residence of the holder. The registered address of a legal person, or an organisational unit without legal personality, is the address at which the managing authority operates.
The headquarters of the agricultural holding of a natural person is understood as the settlement of the holding (residential building and outbuildings and equipment for agricultural production), and in the absence of buildings, the biggest part of the agricultural holding. The headquarters of the agricultural holding of a legal person and an organisational unit without legal personality is the address of the local unit at which agricultural activity is conducted.
An agricultural holding is understood as an agricultural area, including forest land, buildings or their parts, equipment and livestock, if they constitute or might constitute, an organised economic unit, as well as the rights related to running an agricultural holding.
An agricultural holding of a natural person (individual holding) is understood as an agricultural holding of at least 0.1 ha of agricultural land, either owned or used by a natural person, as well as an agricultural holding of a person with agricultural land less than 0.1 ha or having no agricultural land, who possesses at least 1 head of cattle, or (and) 5 head of pigs, or 1 sow, or (and) 3 head of sheep or (and) 3 head of goats, or (and) 1 horse, or (and) 30 head of poultry, or (and) 1 ostrich, or (and) 5 head of female rabbits, or (and) 5 head of other fur-bearing female animals, or (and) 3 head of other animals kept for slaughter, or (and) 1 beehive.
An agricultural holding of a legal person, or an organisational unit without legal personality, is understood as an agricultural holding run by a legal person or by an organisational unit without legal personality, the principal activity of which is classified, according to the Polish Classification of Activities, to Section A, Division 01, Groups 01.1- growing of non-perennial crops, 01.2- growing of perennial crops, 01.- plant propagation, 01.4- animal production and breeding, 01.5- agricultural crops mixed with animal production (mixed farming), 01.6, class 01.61- support activities for plant production (maintaining good agricultural condition following environmental protection standards), as well as any activity, irrespective of the principal activity classification, where the area of agricultural land cultivated by the unit exceeds 1 ha.
A holder is understood as a natural person, a legal person or an organisational unit without legal personality, actually using the agricultural holding, regardless of whether as owner or leaseholder, or using the holding in any other respect, regardless of whether the land comprising the agricultural holding is situated in one or in several gminas.
Total agricultural land consists of:
- agricultural land in good agricultural condition (agricultural land maintained in compliance with the standards, in conformity with the requirements stipulated in the Regulation of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development on Minimum Standards of 11 March 2010, as amended (Dz. U. (Journal of Laws) of 2010, No. 39, item 211), which comprises:
- permanent meadows,
- permanent pastures,
- permanent crops, including orchards (plantations of fruit-bearing trees and shrubs, and nurseries),
- kitchen gardens (except for the area intended for recreation),
- sown area,
- fallow land,
- other agricultural land (agricultural land not cultivated and not maintained in a good agricultural condition as at June 30th 2010).
Sown area is the area of all sown or planted crops on an agricultural holding. Sown area includes the area of nurseries of ornamental trees and shrubs, nurseries of forest trees for commercial purposes, wicker plantations, fruit-bearing trees and shrubs outside plantations, as well as any other permanent crops and the area of permanent crops cultivated under covers, etc. This category includes the area of fast-growing trees and shrubs cultivated on agricultural land.
Sown area does not include the area of crops in kitchen gardens and the area of orchards (plantations of fruit-bearing trees and shrubs, berry crops and nurseries).
Agricultural activity includes activity associated with crop and animal production, including all agricultural crops (including mushroom production), vegetable production and horticulture, arboriculture, agricultural and horticultural crop and seed production, animal production on a holding (cattle, sheep, goats, horses, pigs, poultry, rabbits, fur-bearing animals, game kept for slaughter), bees, and activity consisting of maintaining unused agricultural land for production purposes according to the rules of a good agricultural practice in accordance with environmental protection requirements (according to the standards).
Other gainful non-agricultural activity directly connected with the agricultural holding is production or service activity conducted on one's own account for profit, using the resources of the agricultural holding (the labour force, the area, the buildings, the machinery park, etc.) or agricultural products made within the holding.
Total income of a household with the holder is the total income of all persons (related or unrelated) living together with the holder and with a common subsistence.
Livestock is animals kept to obtain economic benefits, such as the production of meat, milk and other animal products, as well as in the case of horses, used as beasts of burden and for recreational and sports purposes.
Livestock includes the following species: equidae, cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, poultry (i.e. hens, turkeys, ducks, geese, quail, guinea fowl, pigeons, ostriches, peacocks, swans and other species, but excluding birds kept for hunting purposes, and not for meat production), rabbits, fur-bearing animals, beehives and other animals kept in an agricultural holding for meat production (e.g. deer, fallow deer, wild boar, etc.).
Working on one's own/family holding is considered as performing work directly connected with agricultural production (crop and livestock) and general work connected with running the holding, e.g.:
- the purchase of means of production,
- the sales of products and preparation for sales,
- work connected with storage,
- transport for the purposes of the agricultural holding,
- current repairs of agricultural equipment, maintenance work related to buildings, machinery and installations,
- the organisation and management of labour on the holding, settling official matters, bookkeeping,
- filling in applications for direct and other subsidies.
The following types of work are not treated as work on an agricultural holding: preparing meals, washing, cleaning, taking care of children and other work related to running the household. This category also excludes work related to forestry, hunting, fishing or fish breeding (regardless whether conducted on the holding or not), as well as work performed as part of economic activity other than agricultural.
Annual Work Unit (AWU) is the equivalent of full-time work. It is calculated by dividing the number of hours worked per year by the annual number of hours corresponding to full-time work. In Poland, the number of 2120 working hours per year, namely 265 working days of 8 working hours each, was adopted as the equivalent of full-time work. When calculating the labour input in AWU (based on the Eurostat methodology), it was assumed that no more than 1 AWU could be attributed to 1 person, even if in reality he/she had worked longer.
Main work refers to persons performing more than one job - means work which usually consumes the largest amount of time. If two (or more) types of work take the same amount of time, the one which generates the highest income should be treated as the main work.
Additional work means additional work which usually consumes the largest amount of time, apart from the main work. If two types of additional work take the same amount of time, the one which generates the higher income should be indicated.
Employees include persons hired on the basis of a written or oral employment contract, receiving remuneration in cash or in kind. Maintenance costs (e.g. accommodation and boarding) may also form part of remuneration.
Permanent employees include persons who performed work in each week of the year preceding the date of the survey, regardless of the number of working hours per week. This category also includes persons who only worked in some weeks of the year, due to:
- the specificity of agricultural production on the holding (e.g. growing fruit or field vegetables) which required employees to be hired only in a few months in the year,
- leave, military service, illness, accident, death,
- the beginning or termination of work on the holding (i.e. persons who changed their workplace within a year),
- a complete stoppage of work on the holding caused by natural factors (flood, fire).
Temporary workers- persons who worked temporarily in the 12-month period, and who had no permanent employment contract.
Neighbourly assistance- exchange of labour input between agricultural holdings. Such work must be performed without any remuneration paid by the holders of other holdings.
Contracted workers- persons performing specific services on the agricultural holding, who were not directly hired by this holding.
Other persons working on the holding include members of agricultural production cooperatives (provided that they worked on the agricultural holding), students working on school-owned holdings, persons (including the clergy) working on agricultural holdings run by monasteries (except for permanent employees).